Low delivery latency and high delivery ratio are two key goals in the design of routing schemes in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). The existing routing schemes utilize real-time information (e.g., Geographical position and vehicle density) and historical information (e.g., Contacts of vehicles), which usually suffer from a long delivery latency and a low delivery ratio. Inspired by the unique features of bus systems such as wide coverage, fixed routes and regular service, we propose to use the bus systems as routing backbones of VANETs. In this work, we present a Community-based Bus System (CBS) which consists of two components: a community-based backbone and a routing scheme over the backbone.
We collect real traces of 2515 buses in Beijing and build a community-based backbone by applying community detection techniques in the Beijing bus system. A two-level routing scheme is proposed to operate over the backbone. The proposed routing scheme performs sequentially in the inter-community level and the intra-community level, and is able to support message delivery to both mobile vehicles and specific locations/areas. Extensive experiments are conducted on the real trace data of the Beijing bus system and the results show that CBS can significantly lower the delivery latency and improve the delivery ratio. CBS is applicable to any bus-based VANETs.