Video content currently makes up nearly half of the “fixed” Internet traffic and more than a third of the mobile traffic in North America, with most other regions showing similar trends. As mobile data rates continue to increase and more people rely on 802.11 wireless for home and commercial Internet access, the amount of video transmitted over at least one wireless hop will likely continue to increase.
In addition, as cameras continue to become smaller and cheaper, the demand for video services in sensor and MANET networks will also increase. In this paper, we examine the state of the art of wireless video communication at each layer of the networking stack. We consider both existing and emerging technologies at each layer of the protocol stack as well as cross-layer designs, and discuss how these solutions can increase the video experience for the end user.