Ring Routing: An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink

In a typical wireless sensor network, the batteries of the nodes near the sink deplete quicker than other nodes due to the data traffic concentrating towards the sink, leaving it stranded and disrupting the sensor data reporting. To mitigate this problem, mobile sinks are proposed. They implicitly provide load-balanced data delivery and achieve uniform-energy consumption across the network.

On the other hand, advertising the position of the mobile sink to the network introduces an overhead in terms of energy consumption and packet delays. In this paper, we propose Ring Routing, a novel, distributed, energy-efficient mobile sink routing protocol, suitable for time-sensitive applications, which aims to minimize this overhead while preserving the advantages of mobile sinks. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of Ring Routing via extensive simulations.

Implementation of HMAC-SHA256 algorithm for hybrid routing protocols in MANETs

The purpose of a hash function is to produce a “fingerprint” of a message or data for authentication. The strength of the Hash code against brute-force attacks depends on the length of the hash code produced by the algorithm. Constructing the Message Authentication Codes (MAC) from Cryptographic hash functions (SHA-256) gives faster execution in software than symmetric block ciphers like Data Encryption Standard (DES) and also the library code for cryptographic hash functions are widely available.

Here we implemented the HMAC-SHA 256 Algorithm for the message authentication and Data Integrity. This algorithm is introduced in hybrid routing protocol for Mobile network environment and the performance of the protocol is analyzed by calculating throughput, packet delivery ration and end-to-end delays of the network The simulation is carried out using Network Simulator 2 (NS2). We observed that there is an improvement in throughput and packet delivery ratio at the cost of more processing time.

AAEERP: Advanced AUV-Aided Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Underwater WSNs

Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are getting growing interest because of wide-range of applications. Most applications of these networks demand reliable data delivery over longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, resource-constrained nature of these networks makes routing in a harsh and unpredictable underwater environment challenging. Most existing schemes either employ static or mobile sink for data collection. However, in former sensors near the sink deplete out their energy more quickly which limits network lifetime. Mobile sink based schemes are not suitable for delay-sensitive large-scale applications. Unlike prior work, this paper presents a novel Advanced AUV-aided Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (AAEERP) for reliable data delivery.

To prolong network lifetime, AAEERP employs an autonomous underwater vehicle to collect data from gateways. To minimize energy consumption, we use a shortest path tree algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways and devise a criterion to limit the association count of nodes. Moreover, the role of gateways is rotated to balance the energy consumption. To prevent data loss, AAEERP allows dynamic data collection time to AUV depending up the count of member sensors for each gateway. The performance of the AAEERP is validated through simulations. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of AAEERP in terms of various performance metrics.

A Distributed Three-hop Routing Protocol to Increase the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks

Hybrid wireless networks combining the advantages of both mobile ad-hoc networks and infrastructure wireless networks have been receiving increased attention due to their ultra-high performance. An efficient data routing protocol is important in such networks for high network capacity and scalability. However, most routing protocols for these networks simply combine the ad-hoc transmission mode with the cellular transmission mode, which inherits the drawbacks of ad-hoc transmission. This paper presents a Distributed Three-hop Routing protocol (DTR) for hybrid wireless networks. To take full advantage of the widespread base stations, DTR divides a message data stream into segments and transmits the segments in a distributed manner.

It makes full spatial reuse of a system via its high speed ad-hoc interface and alleviates mobile gateway congestion via its cellular interface. Furthermore, sending segments to a number of base stations simultaneously increases throughput and makes full use of widespread base stations. In addition, DTR significantly reduces overhead due to short path lengths and the elimination of route discovery and maintenance. DTR also has a congestion control algorithm to avoid overloading base stations. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show the superiority of DTR in comparison with other routing protocols in terms of throughput capacity, scalability and mobility resilience. The results also show the effectiveness of the congestion control algorithm in balancing the load between base stations.

A multihop routing protocol for wireless sensor network based on grid clustering

Due to limited sensor nodes energy in wireless sensor network, it is very important to save the energy for prolonging networks lifetime. Clustering is a successful approach in wireless sensor network, which can increases network lifetime and scalability.

A multihop routing protocol based on grid clustering is proposed to improve networks performance in wireless sensor network. Detailed analysis and simulation result reveals that the proposed algorithm when compared with some existing algorithm increases the wireless network lifetime.

Cross layer congestion aware multi rate multi path routing protocol for ad hoc network

Modern wireless devices, which implement the 802.11b standard, utilizes multiple transmission rates in order to accommodate a varied range of channel conditions. Many rate adaptation algorithms proposed, utilizes the multi data rate, primarily according to the current channel quality. Most algorithms do not consider congestion around the network and proper determinant to identify it. In multi rate Ad hoc network, due to mismatched link rate, the node interface queues get overloaded. Thus causing congestion, which consequently result in packet loss, further reducing effective throughput.

In this paper, we propose a novel Cross layer QoS aware Multi Rate routing protocol (CQMR) based on nodes queuing load and link state. CQMR focuses on cross-layer interactions between PHY, MAC and Network layer to utilize these multi-rate supports from 802.11b. CQMR algorithm chooses the optimal path with effective data rate and through a less congested network, which is compatible with existing 802.11 implementations. We have implemented CQMR in the NS-2 simulator and conducted extensive simulation studies over network diversity. Our analysis shows that CQMR protocol significantly increases the network performance in the packet delivery ratio and throughput.

A Backbone based multicast routing protocol for route recovery in MANETs

Mobile ad-hoc network is an infrastructure independent and self-organizing network where the mobile nodes are communicated with each other through wireless links. Due to some reasons such as frequent topological changes, packet collisions and bad channels which may cause some link breakages in MANETs. In the existing protocol i.e. Adaptive Dynamic Backbone Multicast RoutingProtocol, if any link or node failure occurs then there is no scope to recover that failure.

In order to avoid these link failures. In this paper we are coming up with a new protocol called Backbone Based MulticastRoute Recovery Protocol to overcome the drawbacks of the existing protocol. This protocol constructs a virtual backbone by using a three step procedure that includes neighbor selection, core selection and core connection processes. The proposed protocol provides more efficiency and robustness and can be easily adopted in any sort of environments like static or dynamic areas. And also reduces the flooding and storage overhead at each core node and other nodes in the network.

Analysis of Ethernet-switch traffic shapers for in-vehicle networking applications

Switched Ethernet has been proposed as network technology for automotive and industrial applications. IEEE AVB is a collection of standards that specifies (among other elements) a set of network traffic shaping mechanisms (i.e., rules to regulate the traffic flow) to have guaranteed Quality of Service for Audio/Video traffic. However, in-vehicle control applications like advanced driver-assistance systems require much lower latencies than provided by this standard.

Within the context of IEEE TSN (Time Sensitive Networking), three new traffic shaping mechanisms are considered, named Burst Limiting, Time Aware and Peristaltic shaper respectively. In this paper we explain and compare these shapers, we examine their worst case end-to-end latencies analytically and we investigate their behavior through a simulation of a particular setup. We show that the shapers hardly satisfy the requirements for 100Mbps Ethernet, but can come close under further restrictions. We also show the impact the shapers have on AVB traffic.

Recent trends in virtual network functions acceleration for carrier clouds

Summary form only given. In this keynote we will present the latest trends in deploying Virtual Network Functions (VNF) for Carrier Networks. The discussion will address the challenges that operators face and their different approaches when virtualizing mobile and fixed networking applications, including EPG, BNG and many others.

In addition we will highlight the latest developments in VNF acceleration, including potential acceleration targets and their locations in the Carrier Data center. And in conclusion explore the needs of a common acceleration abstraction and the standardization/industry efforts to achieve that goal, including Open Compute Project, Open Data Plane Project, OpenFlow and OpenFlow 2.0, ETSI and OPNFV.

Interest Flooding Attack Countermeasures Assessment on Content Centric Networking

Content Centric Networking (CCN) has introduced new concepts and ideas in the next generation routing protocols research area, proposing an alternative approach to the well known and consolidated TCP/IP protocol suite. CCN envisions a network of smart caching devices that not only transport bits from one place to another but also support the network to provide end users with what they are really interested in: named data.

However, while a large portion of the existing literature highlights the benefits of this new network paradigm, we focus on some specific security issues related to the opportunity of mounting distributed denial of service attacks, commonly known as Interest Flooding Attack (IFA). Our results confirm this possibility and assess the behavior of state of the art tools designed to mitigate this problem. We run different simulation campaigns in a real deployment scenario to support our evaluation.