Ensuring an early recognition and avoidance of the vampire attacks in WSN using routing loops

In sensing it’s the ad-hoc sensor and data routing which is an important research direction. Security work is prioritized in this area and focusing primarily at medium access control or the routing levels on denial of communication. Attacks focusing on routing protocol layer are known as resource depletion attacks in this paper. This attack impacts by persistently disabling the network and causing the node’s battery power drain drastically. There are protocols established which tends to protect from DOS attacks, however it isn’t possible perfectly. Vampire attack is one such DOS attack. These Vampire attacks depends on various characteristics of well-known many classes of routing protocols as these are not specific to any particular protocol.

These Vampire attacks can be easily executed using even a single malicious intruder, who sends simply protocol complaint message, these attacks are thus destructing and very hard to detect. In the nastiest condition, an individual attacker has the ability to enlarge the energy usage of the network by a factor of O(N), where N is the quantity of nodes in the network. A new proof-of-concept protocol is a method discussed to mitigate these kinds of attacks. This protocol limits the damage caused at the time of packet forwarding done by Vampires. To diminish the Vampire attacks using PLGP-a which identifies malicious attack, certain approaches have also been discussed.

Performance analysis of routing for traffic variation in WSN

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of sensor nodes which are randomly distributed over the network. These distributed sensor nodes have the ability to monitor environmental conditions. In WSN when nodes are densely distributed, congestion may occur in the network. In order to prevent congestion, fair allocation or sharing of resources to these nodes is necessary. Fairness maintains the network traffic and prevents congestion. Fair distribution of energy and traffic enhances network lifetime.

In this paper we discuss fairness topic in routing protocols focusing more on its influence on resource allocation and network performance. This paper describes performance analysis of existing routing protocols for traffic variation in WSN. Simulation result shows the suitability protocol for grid topology in terms of packet delivery ratio, throughput, delay, average energy consumption, control overheads and routing overheads.

Pro-AODV (Proactive AODV): Simple modifications to AODV for proactively minimizing congestion in VANETs

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are key to realizing Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Although VANETs belong to the class of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), and there are numerous routing protocols for MANETs, none of these protocols are applicable for VANETs. In particular, VANETs are highly dynamic due to high speed mobility of vehicles and traditional routing algorithms for MANETs cannot deal with such dynamicity of network nodes. Several comparative studies have suggested AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), a well known MANET protocol that is adaptive to dynamic changes in network and makes efficient utilization of network resources, to be the best candidate for dealing with VANETs.

However, verbatim adoption of AODV is not an efficient routing solution for VANETs. Recent works therefore proposed various modifications and/or additions to AODV to make it suitable for VANETs. It is particularly important to control congestion in VANETs by efficiently dealing with the AODV “Route Request” (RREQ) packets. In this paper, we propose Pro-AODV (Proactive AODV), a protocol that uses information from the AODV routing table to minimize congestion in VANETs, yet sustains other performance metrics at acceptable levels. The novelty and elegance in Pro-AODV comes from the fact that it does not require the execution of any additional logic, it is sufficient to know only the size of the routing table at each node.

On the Overheads of Ad Hoc Routing Schemes

The “first wave” of wireless ad hoc routing protocols was heavily influenced by the routing algorithms used in wired networks. However, their overheads due to topology changes and the implicit restriction to point-to-point control messages meant that extensive effort had to be expended in “fixing” them to fit the intricacies and opportunities offered by wireless environments.

In this paper, we analyze and compare the most widely used routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In particular, we consider routing and control overheads, storage requirements, and network setup costs of theseprotocols to see how well they fit in MANETs with nodes that have scarce resources.

TERP: A Trust and Energy Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

In most of the applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), nodes operate in un-attended environments and are therefore vulnerable to variety of attacks. Due to dynamic and unpredictable changing behavior of nodes, the reliable data delivery is a challenging task. For WSNs, the traditional cryptographic and authentication based solutions can’t be adopted due to their associated cost and incapability to counter nodes misbehavior attacks. Recently, trust based solutions have proved to be more effective to address nodes’ misbehavior attacks. However, the existing solutions give rise to high energy consumption and control overheads in pursuit of trust estimation and network-wide dissemination which not only adds to network congestion but also undermines network lifetime.

In this paper, we present a Trust and Energy aware Routing Protocol (TERP) that makes use of a distributed trust model for the detection and isolation of misbehaving and faulty nodes. Moreover, TERP incorporates a composite routing function that encompasses trust, residual-energy, and hopcounts of neighbor nodes in making routing decisions. This multi-facet routing strategy helps to balance out energy consumption among trusted nodes while routing data using shorter paths. Simulation results demonstrate reduced energy consumption, improved throughout and network lifetime of TERP when compared to existing work.

ACDTN: A new routing protocol for delay tolerant networks based on ant colony

In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol named ACDTN, inspired from the collective behavior in ants colonies, to find the hops that are more likely to approach the message to it final destination, by combining the information on the time and the geographical coordinates of appointment places (visibility) and the encounters frequency between nodes (pheromone) to compute the transition probability.

In addition, we used THE ONE simulator to verify the performance of ACDTN compared to those of the routing techniques; Epidemic, Spray and Wait and ProPHET, simulation results show that the proposed approach (ACDTN ) improves the rate of message delivery and generates a very low overhead compared to other routes, Making it a good candidate for DTN network.

Network Coding-Aware routing protocol in Wireless Mesh Networks

Network coding mechanisms, such as COPE, can improve network throughput effectively in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN). While the Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is suitable for WMN, its extension with COPE does not provide any added benefits; specifically, HWMP cannot establish paths with more coding opportunities. As a result, the advantages of network coding cannot be exploited sufficiently. This paper proposes improvements upon HWMP with a new, network Coding-Awarerouting protocol (CAHWMP) for WMN.

In the CAHWMP protocol, we propose a coding criterion based on data streams to devise an algorithm for actively detecting coding opportunities during path discovery. CAHWMP subsequently establishes paths using the coding-aware routing metric, which can balance channel resource consumption and the gain due to sharing resources introduced by network coding. Simulation results show that CAHWMP can establish paths with more coding opportunities; as a result, it improves network performance such as network throughput.

Extended mobility management and routing protocols for internet-to-VANET multicasting

Emerging ITS applications such as fleet management and point of interest distribution require vehicles to have Internet access. However, allowing vehicles to access to the Internet is particularly challenging due to the special characteristics of the vehicular environment. So far, multicasting approaches have been demonstrated to be effective for supporting group communication in traditional networks. However, such Internet-to-VANET multicast service involves several challenges including efficient multicast mobility management and multicast message delivery.

This paper proposes a scheme that combines the existing multicast mobility management scheme with vehicular networking solutions to achieve Internet-to-VANET multicasting. The proposed scheme aims to: (i) provide multicast mobility management with low control overhead and efficient bandwidth utilization, as well as (ii) extend the service coverage provided by VANET membership management and multicast message deliveryprotocol. Simulation results indicate that our Motion-MAODV scheme improves the performance of both MAODV and traditional flooding dissemination schemes in terms of both packet delivery ratio and end-to-end transmission latency.

E-CARP: An Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for UWSNs in the Internet of Underwater Things

With the advance of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed under the water and form the underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), to facilitate the discovery of vast unexplored ocean volume. A routing protocol, which is not expensive in packets forwarding and energy consumption, is fundamental for sensory data gathering and transmitting in UWSNs. To address this challenge, this paper proposes E-CARP, which is an enhanced version of the Channel-Aware RoutingProtocol (CARP) developed by S. Basagni et al., to achieve the location-free and greedy hop-by-hop packet forwarding strategy.

Generally, CARP does not consider the reusability of previously collected sensory data to support certain domain applications afterwards, which induces data packets forwarding which may not be beneficial to applications. Besides, the PING-PONG strategy in CARP can be simplified for selecting the most appropriate relay node at each time point, when the network topology is relatively steady. These two research problems have been addressed by our E-CARP. Simulation results validate that our technique can decrease the communication cost significantly and increase the network capability to a certain extent.

Performance and applicability of a new geographic routing protocol for virtual power plants

The Smart Grid (SG) incorporates communication networks to the conventional electricity system in order to intelligently integrate distributed energy resources (DERs) and allow for demand side management. The move to Smart grid in developing countries has to cope with great disparities of ICT infrastructures even within the same city. Besides, individual DERs are often too small to be allowed access to energy market, likewise power utilities are unable to effectively control and manage small DERs.

We propose the use of affordable and scalable wireless communication technology to aggregate geographically sparse DERs into a single virtual power plant. The enrollment of prosumers in the VPP is conditional to financial performance of the plant. Thus, the VPPs are dynamic and are expected to scale up as more and more prosumers are attracted by their financial benefits. the communication network has to follow this progression and therefore to be scalable and rapidly deploy-able. We present a routing algorithm for data communication within the VPP to support centralized, decentralized or fully distributed control of the VPP’s DERs.