E-CARP: An Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for UWSNs in the Internet of Underwater Things

With the advance of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed under the water and form the underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), to facilitate the discovery of vast unexplored ocean volume. A routing protocol, which is not expensive in packets forwarding and energy consumption, is fundamental for sensory data gathering and transmitting in UWSNs. To address this challenge, this paper proposes E-CARP, which is an enhanced version of the Channel-Aware RoutingProtocol (CARP) developed by S. Basagni et al., to achieve the location-free and greedy hop-by-hop packet forwarding strategy.

Generally, CARP does not consider the reusability of previously collected sensory data to support certain domain applications afterwards, which induces data packets forwarding which may not be beneficial to applications. Besides, the PING-PONG strategy in CARP can be simplified for selecting the most appropriate relay node at each time point, when the network topology is relatively steady. These two research problems have been addressed by our E-CARP. Simulation results validate that our technique can decrease the communication cost significantly and increase the network capability to a certain extent.